How to form clumps in the intermediate ranges of massive protoplanetary disks? Could these later be planets?
A model that needs fewest parameters to explain a scenario is favourable. The fact that mm-size dust grains (chondrules) are present in the entire solar system brings rise to the question, whether all bigger solid objects are a collection of chondrules.
Earth’s atmosphere is about 100 times less massive than Venus’ atmosphere. This gave rise to the idea that Earth had a more massive atmosphere, which got then depleted by impacts. This Astrobite discusses what would have been the optimal impactor size.
The process of star formation is exciting. During the early phases, a protostar undergoes two characteristic collapses. Today’s Astrobite explains the two collapse phases and briefly discusses their effects on the “final” product: the second core.
Advanced observational tools such as ALMA allow the detection of complex organic molecules – the building blocks of life. However, how and where they are formed is still unknown.
Stars formed in the early Universe were extremely massive and extremely low in elements heavier than helium. The transition from the first to the second generation of stars is still hidden in the shadows of the past. However, simulations of the most massive supernovae can help us to decipher the way of how the life cycle of stars came into being.