While a planet is forming, its passage through the protoplanetary disk can prevent pebbles from migrating inwards and accreting onto the planet.
Using 14 years of high resolution near-infrared imaging, radio observations of molecular gas, and a hydrodynamic simulation the authors show that spiral arms seen in the protoplanetary disk around HD 100453 A are caused by its M-dwarf companion.
Mini-Neptunes are among the most common type of planet in the galaxy. Are they as easy to build as we might think?
Turbulence plays a key role in determining what types of planets can form in a disk. We are finally on the verge of measuring this property for the first time using CO spectral lines, but it will only work if we factor in how quickly CO can be depleted.
Giant planets take too long to form from large planetesimals. Does including much smaller pebbles fix this problem?
My name is Protoplanetary Disk Mass. I am important for determining what types of planets can form, where they can form, and how quickly they can form. Signed Protoplanetary Disk Mass.