Astronomers need to rely on assumptions sometimes. How do we make sure they don’t get us into trouble?
Spectrographs here on Earth are getting good enough to detect tortoise-speed velocity shifts in starlight. That means that we need to understand the bubbling, broiling surfaces of stars to tortoise-level precision.
We’ve strongly suspected they’re there. A new method promises to prove it.
A handy guide from 1945!
If we don’t understand starspots, we won’t understand exoplanet atmospheres.