Dead zones!?! Dust?! An arbitrary pumpkin metaphor!?
Astronomers need to rely on assumptions sometimes. How do we make sure they don’t get us into trouble?
Spectrographs here on Earth are getting good enough to detect tortoise-speed velocity shifts in starlight. That means that we need to understand the bubbling, broiling surfaces of stars to tortoise-level precision.
We’ve strongly suspected they’re there. A new method promises to prove it.
A handy guide from 1945!